29 September 2010


                                                AFIA ZINDABAD PAKISTAN ZINDABAD
                                                LONG LIVE AFIA LONG LIVE PAKISTAN

Define & Types of Electron Emission

21 September 2010

Frankfurt Tower's Power Trick

The Westarkade tower integrates data from dozens of sensors to keep the tower from consuming power. Credit: KFW Bankengruppe LATEST POWER TRICK ENJOY THIS ARTICLE.
By Peter Fairley, IEEE Spectrum

You don't need to seal yourself in to live green. That's the message from the engineers of the Westarkade, a colorful high-rise that officially opened in Frankfurt in July.

The 15-story glass tower glows with natural light and offers windows that open—a comfort that can wreak havoc with energy efficiency. But the Westarkade's first-of-a-kind "pressure ring" facade and sophisticated, sensor-rich control scheme promise to consume no more than 100 kilowatt-hours of energy per square meter per year. That would make it a world-class energy miser, using half as much energy as a conventional office building in Europe and as little as a third of the U.S. average.

"It's an aggressive goal, especially with this building that's all glass," says Mark Perepelitza, a facade expert with Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects, based in Portland, Ore.

The Westarkade's dynamic facade is a descendant of a 1990s German design that was developed to manage excess sunlight in glass towers. Horizontal venetian blinds installed outside of the tower's glass envelope reject unwanted summer heat, while a pane of glass installed over the blinds and ventilated at the top and bottom protects the blinds from high winds. The "double skin" design comes up short, however, when architects add windows that open, which is typically mandated under European labor codes. Winds create a pressure differential around the tower, sending drafts ripping across floors when workers exercise their right to natural ventilation. "Sheets are blowing from the tables and the doors are smashing and the heat is going out," says Tom Geister, a senior architect with Berlin-based Sauerbruch Hutton, the firm that designed the Westarkade.

Sauerbruch Hutton worked with Stuttgart-based firm Transsolar KlimaEngineering to solve the problem. The firms installed 180 vertical ventilation flaps in the outer skin to manage air flows, creating what they call a pressure-ring facade. The building's control system takes constant feedback from a rooftop weather station and from 40 sensors deployed throughout the building that measure temperature, pressure, and sunlight. The system continually opens and closes individual flaps to maintain a ring of consistent positive pressure around the structure, preventing strong winds from entering.

That should keep windows from sabotaging the Westarkade's high-efficiency heating and cooling systems, which rely on such tricks as geothermal heat exchangers, heat captured from a basement data center, and heat recovered from vented air. Better still, in the fall and spring, air from the open windows should eliminate the need for mechanical ventilation altogether. Throughout the year, the control system will advise occupants via an LED panel in offices when open windows are a good idea, but it gives the occupant the last word.

The Westarkade's control system manipulates ventilation flaps on the building facade to maintain a ring of air pressure around the building. Credit: KFW Bankengruppe

Of course, that's all theory. "We will see if it works," said Axel Hinterthan with a nervous laugh, as he led journalists around the nearly completed Westarkade a few months ago. Hinterthan is director of project management for KfW Bankengruppe, which commissioned the Westarkade as an expansion of its Frankfurt headquarters complex. He admits that KfW is taking a chance on new technology to further green-building design, which is an important role for the state-owned development bank. Created decades ago to implement the Marshall Plan, KfW now administers, among other things, low-interest federal loans for energy-efficiency upgrades.

Transsolar engineer Bjorn Rohle says his company is confident that the pressure-ring facade is the most efficient means of building windows into a tower. He says that a team at the University of Karlsruhe, in Germany, will monitor the Westarkade's energy consumption for two years to test whether this approach works.

Oregon architect Perepelitza expects that it will take two years just to tune the Westarkade's control systems for optimum energy performance. He cautions that the double-skin design was overhyped and that some similar early projects "didn't live up to the promise." But he is nevertheless bullish about the pressure ring's potential, which he says was extensively modeled by Transsolar and builds on the earlier designs. He thinks it could point the way forward for glass towers as natural ventilation and energy efficiency grow in importance. "This building represents a new generation," Perepelitza says.

About : Peter Fairley is a contributing editor to IEEE Spectrum and the Energywise blog. In the June 2010 issue he wrote about how energy technology giant GE intends to compete in solar using cadmium telluride technology.

18 September 2010

Flood mood light "LATEST"

Flood mood light :

This is my first Instructable, and when i started to make the project i never intened to place it on this site but the LED contest was too good to miss.


As i said before i never planed to place this online so that means i did not take pictures when making the circuit, but i will walkthrough it as best as i can.

This project is aimed at people who dont have access to a microcontroller, but have expert experience with intergrated circuits and strip boards.

Finaly i want to say is, the way i have made this project is a prototype -Proof of concept- i dont recomend that you try to make this in the same way i have, i STRONGLY recomend using a printed circuit board because in some places you need very good fault finding skills to fix it, or when you do make it get a bigger strip board and space things out.

Parts list

When i made this i bought the componnets as i went along because luckily, i live near RS Components.

Also the part list is for my circuit feel free to increase or decrease the size of the circuit to suit your needs.

100* 5mm RGB LEDs (36* used) ebay item number: 120426126311

2* Vero stripboards 100*160 holes

123* 470 OHM Resistors 0.5W

12* 1K OHM Resistors

6* 10K OHM Resistors

18* 2.2uF Capacitors

36* 1N4001 Diodes

24* BC635 NPN Transistors (In the instructable i acidentally typed in wrong transistors, now it has been changed. USE BC635)

6* 1K OHM Potentiometers ( I suggest you use a greater value 100K OHM)

3* 555 Timers

3* MC14017BCP Decade counter

2* Slide switch (on-on)

Tinned copper wire

Useful links

How to wire 555 timer in stripboard:

How to create a voltage controlled oscillator with 555 timer:

How to wire decade counter:

MC14017 date sheet:


Before i started i had planned that i will do each step one by one, and i will only continue once the step im doing is working perfectly.

So in this step i got out

5mm RGB LEDs

Vero stripboard 100*160 holes

470 OHM Resistors 0.5W

In picture 1 you can see,
the LED that I bought has ground in the middle so when placing them into the stripboard be carefull.

In picture 2 you can see,
this is the most space efficient way of mounting the LEDs and the resistors

In picture 3 you can see,
one completed line the reason why i used 9 LEDs is because i ran out of room on the stripboard.
(click here for bigger, better, more clearer picture)

In picture 4 you can see,
the completed LED part of the circuit, i only used 4 lines because of space but you can make up to 10 for one Decade counter.
(click here for bigger, better, more clearer picture)
Step 1: LEDs


Step 2: Fade
Step 2: Fade

In this step i wanted to create a way of fadeing off each LED.

So searching online i found this circuit.

The parts i used were:

470 OHM Resistors 0.5W

1K OHM Resistors

2.2uF Capacitors

BC635 NPN Transistors

When i created my circuit i forgot to add the resistor on the trigger (image 1, R121) but i added it in later in a different part of the circuit
the purpose of that resistor is to reduce the sensitivity of the trigger because without it a small voltage will turn on the LEDs

In the picture 2 it shows,
how each fade circuit is created on a stripboard
also it is important to remember that there is a cut track underneath R1

In picture 3 it shows,
one completed line of LEDs with a fade circuit attached to the resistors
(click here for bigger, better, more clearer picture)

in picture 4 it shows,
the completed circuit so far

Flood control:

In this step i wanted to choose the colour the LEDs where showing so i decieded to create a way of controlling each colour one by one.

In this step the parts i used where

1N4001 Diode

1K OHM Potentiometers ( I suggest you use a greater value 100K OHM)

What i did was get a potentiometer and attached one side to positive the other to ground and attach the middle to 4 diodes which attach to a single colour

the reason for the diode is to stop multiple LED lines lighting up when not suposed to.

this step is alittle hard to describe but i belive the last picture explains it pretty well

Step 3: Flood control

Decade counter:

This step was easy but it was the hardest to put inside the circuit because i as running short of space to put all the compoenents.

The parts i used where:

470 OHM Resistors 0.5W

10K OHM Resistors

2.2uF Capacitors

1N4001 Diodes

1K OHM Potentiometers ( I suggest you use a greater value 100K OHM)

555 Timers

MC14017BCP Decade counter

Important note  ***  you have to do this three times, one for red,one for blue and one for green ***

Creating the circuit below is easy
in the next step i will show you how to wire it to the triggers of the fader.

Step 4: Decade counter

Putting it all together:

All you have to do now is put all the steps together and hopfully it makes sense.

But when reading over this i have a feeling that some people might be confused, so im going to make a picture of a circuit which only shows one colour. All you have to do is do it three more times.

The top bit, LEDs and fade is pretty simple to understand.

The bottom bit is harder.

The pink dotted line shows that you have to make this circuit three times (one for each colour) this is the decade counter.

The output  and input to trigger means,
because the decade counter does up to ten and i only have 4 lines of LEDs,
i have to double up the outputs

So here is a truth table.

output    I    trigger

0                   red 1
1                   red 2
2                   red 3
3                   red 4
4                   blank
5                   red 1
6                   red 2
7                   red 3
8                   red 4
9                   blank

This shows the lights really good with two output delay.

the light blue square shows a switch either select the flood control or the decade counter

the red square shows the flood control

(click here for bigger, better, more clearer picture)
Step 5: Putting it all together

Final result:

Here are some photos of the completed circuit

To view the bigger version of the picture like the small   i   symbol in the top left of the photo

Final result

17 September 2010


"LEDs are the most basic output device of modren electronics.They are very inexpensive and trivially easy to control from a microcontroller.They also come in a large number of different forms,including numeric and alphanumeric displays that provide a significant amount of information.They are very useful as tool for outputting status information from the robot to the user.I generally try to put LEDs on my input sensors.They can be used to light when there is a collision or indicates what a light level is.
      Electrically,LEDs have some properties that you should be aware of first and fore most, they are diodes,which means that current in them flows in only one direction.Most modern LEDs require just 5 mAs to light,although there are some(especially high-output)LEDs that require up to 20 mA.
      To connect an LED to a micro controller,it is Good practice to connect the anode to +5 volts, the cathod to a current limiting resistor,and the current limiting resistor to the I/O pin of the controller."

                                                                        Demonstrate code in this sample output device that can independently control up to three LEDs.The Basic circuit is similar to the one used by ledflash, But has two more LEDs  wired to RB2 and RB3,respectively (hopefully you haven't disassembled the led-flash circuit yet).The circuit diagram is shown in figure .

                                                                CLICK! SEE LARGE

As LED technology continues developing and shows advantages of low consumption, long life-span and environmental protection, its application has shifted from initial indicator light to such more potential fields as display panels, illumination, backlight, automobile lights and traffic lights, etc.

This seminar will focus on the development and future outlook of current LED application market. It also profoundly analyzes 'hot' LED application markets including the display panel market, the backlight market, the landscape illumination market, the interior decorative lights market and the most potentially prosperous interior illumination market and elaborately studies the market scale, product structure, market configuration, brand fabric and market characteristics of LED.

George Lee, CEO of American Bright

B.S. in Physics: NCKU, graduated in 1984
M.S. in Physics: Sam Houston State Univ. 1987-1989
M.E. (Master of Engineering) in Electrical Engineering: Texas A&M Univ., 1989-1992

-Founded American Bright Optoelectronics Corp. with a Taiwan-based LED company, Bright LED Electronics Corp. (TWSE 3031) in 1995. Customers of American Bright include Lexmark, Chamberlain Group, First Alert, Carling Switch, Honeywell, Sloan Valve.
-Founded AB Lighting, Inc. as a Solid State Lighting company in 2006